Organization of the Spaces
Norma Frontalis
Norma Verticalis
Norma Lateralis
Norma Basalis (External)
Norma Basalis (Internal)
Norma Occipitalis
Norma Sagittalis

Skull Session I:  The Normae


  For purposes of description, external features of the skull are viewed from five defined aspects. These are the so-called normae (singular = norma), or standard outlines:



Norma facialis (frontalis, anterioris) from the front
Norma lateralis (temporalis) from the side
Norma occipitalis (posterioris) from behind
Norma verticalis (superioris) from above
Norma basalis (inferioris) – the view  also referred to as the external base of the skull. from below with the mandible removed.
Norma basalis (exterior) from above with calvarium removed
Norma sagittalis,


a medial view of the skull hemisected in the sagittal plane.