Organization of the Spaces
Norma Frontalis
Norma Verticalis
Norma Lateralis
Norma Basalis (External)
Norma Basalis (Internal)
Norma Occipitalis
Norma Sagittalis

Skull Session I:  The Normae


  For purposes of description, external features of the skull are viewed from five defined aspects. These are the so-called normae (singular = norma), or standard outlines:



Norma facialis (frontalis, anterioris) from the front
Norma lateralis (temporalis) from the side
Norma occipitalis (posterioris) from behind
Norma verticalis (superioris) from above
Norma basalis (inferioris) the view  also referred to as the external base of the skull. from below with the mandible removed.
Norma basalis (exterior) from above with calvarium removed
Norma sagittalis,


a medial view of the skull hemisected in the sagittal plane.